Sand by itself is not the best idea as it can cause impaction, calcium sand is a absolute no go because the calcium component encourages them to eat it and they cant digest it properly leading to impaction.
an option is non loose substrate (commonly used in the US i believe) like shelf liner or natural tile, paper towels for hospital tanks or for baby beardies.
I would avoid reptile carpet, the fake sand type can cause impaction and the loop variant can cause broken toes and nails because they can get stuck. both types harbor bacteria, if you choose to use them make sure to clean them thoroughly and often.
In europe the most used substrate is loose substrate (for non baby bearded dragons) because bearded dragons do like to dig to some extent, but its important to use a good one. Coco coir (or dirt WITHOUT fertilizer) and play sand 50/50 mix, well packed down is a safe choice (some people also mix in some clay, but im not sure about the safety of it since i've never read up on it). When using loose substrate it is important to serve food either with tongs or on a plate to prevent them from eating the substrate, beardies licks to "smell" their surroundings and might consume a very small amount of substrate but the fibers in the coco coir will help them pass it.
Loose substrate is never a good choice for baby bearded dragons since they are clumsy eaters or for bearded dragons with neurological issues for the same reason.
a good non loose substrate is much easier to keep clean than loose substrate, a good loose substrate is more natural. loose substrate will also get the water dish dirty much faster than if you are using non loose substrate. non loose substrate is also cheaper as loose substrate needs to be changed more often, smaller amounts when spot cleaning, partial changes (top layer) around once a month and complete change every once in a while.
Sorry for the novel haha, im also not an expert but thats my two cents on the subject.
Best of luck